Risk Factors for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Every day, people all over the world are exposed to traumatic events such as wars, physical assaults, natural disasters, and sudden death of their loved ones. But it is difficult to predict who will develop PTSD, for while traumatic events can result in long-lasting, intense emotional responses in some people, others will bounce back quickly with no long-term effects.
A nationwide survey by the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) indicates that while 56 percent of Americans experience a lifetime trauma, only 8 percent develop PTSD. Despite the fact that only a small percentage of trauma victims manifest PTSD, the disorder still deserves attention.
Awareness of PTSD is necessary because of its overall prevalence, as well as the deeply debilitating impact the symptoms have on those who sufferer from this condition. Furthermore, an understanding of the risk factors associated with developing PTSD could help in finding strategies to prevent the disorder from emerging in the first place.
Risks of Developing PTSD
A number of categories of trauma victims could develop PTSD. These include, survivors of domestic violence, rape, and physical assault. Survivors of car accidents, natural disasters, terrorist and attacks, as well as children who are neglected, or abused physically and sexually abused, could also develop PTSD.
Veterans who were in active combat and civilian victims of war, is yet another group of trauma victims who are at risk of developing PTSD. Of course, every day people also experience trauma after sudden unexpected death of loved ones, or are diagnosed with life threatening illnesses, and are also vulnerable to PTSD.
Although all of these groups face different types and degrees of trauma, not all trauma survivors develop PTSD. So what are the factors that increase the risk of developing PTSD? It seems that there are certain biological, psychological, social, and other risk factors that can increase people’s vulnerability to PTSD.
In the book, Risk Factors for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, experts examine the latest research on trauma which gives useful insights om how to identify individuals early after a trauma experience.
What do you think is the main risk factor of PTSD?
There are indications that there is a genetic factor to PTSD, that is, vulnerability to PTSD could be passed on through generations. However, when a traumatic event occurs, it is likely to be worsened by by behaviors such as drug abuse. Further, families with a history of anxiety also suggest a generalized biological vulnerability to PTSD.
The hippocampus, is a part of the brain that plays an important role in learning and memory. Evidence of damage to the hippocampus has appeared in groups of patients with war-related PTSD, and adult survivors of child sexual abuse (Durand & Barlow, 2006). This could result in disruptions in memory functions, including short-term memory, and recalling events, as in such cases as veterans from the Gulf War and Holocaust survivors. However, the good news is that evidence suggests that the damage to the hippocampus may be reversible.
Some Key Points on PTSD
- Many people experience trauma every day.
- It is not possible to predict who will develop PTSD.
- Studies show that there are a number of risk factors for PTSD for people who have experienced trauma.
- One study indicates that are there are childhood factors associated with increased risk of developing PTSD.
- Survivors of domestic violence, rape, natural disasters, terrorist attacks are some of the people who could develop PTSD.
Recent life stressors, including job loss and financial problems could leave people vulnerable to PTSD by weakening their defense against any trauma they might face.
Certain personality trait such as pessimism and introversion also reduce the skills people need to deal with the challenges of traumatic events. This is in contrast to people who are optimistic, and have positive expectancy for the future.
Poor coping skills resulting from issues such as low self esteem could be a risk factor for PTSD. Self esteem is the picture a person has of himself, and how well he or she likes the picture. People who have low self esteem are more likely to feel inadequate and worthless, and this makes them vulnerable in cases of traumatic events in their lives.
Issues such as emotionality could increase a person’s chance of developing PTSD. In such cases, they may lack self-awareness and self-regulation. People who are self-aware know how they feel, and recognize how your own emotions and how they affect your thoughts and behaviors. Even more, self-regulated individuals can control your emotions and actions, and so are able to adapt positively to changing circumstances.
Studies indicate that people who have a strong support network are less likely to develop PTSD after a trauma. Trauma victims need a sense of belonging, and caring group around them which could affect their biological and psychological response to stress. For example, according to Durand and Barlow (2006), the high prevalence of PTSD in Vietnam veterans could be attributed the absence of social support for the group when they returned home.
Support from family, friends, and the community is a critical protective factor for PTSD. In cases where victims are blamed, this could be devastating to their well-being. For example, when rape victims are shamed, or others refuse to believe that the event took place, this could cause them to become overwhelmed with the negative situations.
Social support is also a key ingredient to post-disaster recovery. This facilitates well-being and limit psychological distress following mass trauma. When there is social connectedness, this provides opportunities for activities including practical problem-solving, sharing experiences, and instructions about coping.
Possible Risk Factors for PTSD
Genetic factor - passed on through generations
Pessimistic personality trait; being withdrawn and inhibited
No or limited sense of belonging and connectedness
Damage to the hippocampus (a part of the brain that plays a role in learning and memory)
Low self-esteem resulting in poor coping skills
Weak social support; societal attitudes towards the events
Stories from the War - Documentary on Veterans with PTSD
Factors Around the Traumatic Event
The degree of severity of exposure in the traumatic is also a factor associated with the risk of developing PTSD. The more extreme and prolonged the threat, the greater likelihood of developing PTSD.
There is also indication that injury and threats to life are most likely to result in psychological impairment. Also, intentional human inflicted harm such as rape, assault and torture, tend to be more traumatic than distress from natural disasters. For example, the National Women’s Studyreported that almost a third of all rape victims develop PTSD sometime during their lives
Summary: Understanding PTSD Risk Factors
There are a number of factors that could increase the risk of developing PTSD. Most people who are directly affected by disaster and other traumatic events recover and move on with their lives.
Other people develop psychological disorders, such as PTSD, that result in symptoms such as flashbacks, disturbing dreams associated with the traumatic event, avoidance, and inability to recall important details of the trauma.
References and Further Reading
Appalachian State University (2005). PTSD: Risk factors. Accessed May 9, 2013.
Durand, V. M. & Barlow, D. H. (2006). Essentials of abnormal psychology (4th Ed.) Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
EurekAlert! (2013). PTSD research: distinct gene activity patterns from childhood abuse. Accessed May 9, 2013.
MindTools.com (2012). Emotional intelligence: Developing strong “people skills.” Accessed May 8, 2013.
National Center for PTSD (2011). Sexual assault against women. Accessed May 5, 2013.
National Center for PTSD (2011). Mental health effects following disaster: Risk and resilience factors. Accessed April 26, 2013.
Psychological Medicine (2007). Early childhood factors associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder:results from a longitudinal birth cohort. Accessed August 1, 2015.
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© 2013 Yvette Stupart PhD