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Surgeries & Exams


Safety Devices for the Critical Care Patient Population

Critical care patients, Alzheimer's patients, and comatose patients routinely harm themselves and others unintentionally by scratching, pulling, or grabbing. Here are some interesting ideas for injury prevention in this patient population.


10 Secrets to Get the Most Out of Your Hospital Stay

Follow these 10 secrets to get the most out of your hospital stay, prevent complications, avoid common medical errors, and most importantly, leave the hospital healthier than when you came in.


CT Scan of the Abdomen and Pelvis: With and Without Contrast

This article explains what the abdominal/pelvic CT procedure is, why it may be done, and what the doctor may be looking for. Three videos are included to demonstrate what the images may look like.


What Is the Contrast Dye Used in CT Scans (and How Does It Work)?

CT contrast (also known as contrast dye) is used to better visualize blood vessels and internal organs on a CT scan. How does it work? And, are there any side effects or risks?


What to Expect When You Are Scheduled for a CT Scan

Knowing what to expect during your CT scan (aka CAT scan) can help reduce any anxiety you may have. This article explains everything that will happen before, during, and after the procedure.


Using the Frozen Section Procedure to Diagnose Carcinoma

In this article, I discuss how skin cancers are being diagnosed and treated through a process known as the frozen section. The surgeon and lab technicians cooperate to remove 100% of the patient's skin cancer.


Definition of Lasik Vision Correction

There are a number of different refractive surgery procedures, but LASIK is the most popular, and for good reason. Learn more about this popular procedure.


Dilation of the Eye: Everything You Need to Know

Dilation of the eye is a standard test conducted during an eye exam. It involves using eye drops to open the iris, which usually lasts for several hours. Here are some tips on what to do until it wears off.


Definition of Cycloplegic Refraction

Cycloplegic refractions are frequently performed prior to surgical procedures. This article explains exactly what a cycloplegic refraction is and offers tips on how to get through it.


How to Calm Yourself Down Before a Day Surgery Procedure

As an anesthesiologist, I see many people facing surgery, some for the first time. Find out the best ways to calm yourself down before day surgery.


Fear of Needles and the Vasovagal Reaction

Do you get clammy, sweaty, light-headed, hot, and nauseous when approached by a needle? This is not weakness. In this article, an anesthesiologist explains the vasovagal reaction.


How Does the Neuromuscular Blocker Succinylcholine Work?

It's scary to hear a drug referred to as a "paralytic," but sometimes their administration is medically necessary. Neuromuscular blocking agents are used to make anesthesia and surgery safer.


Drugs Used During Anesthesia: Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

An anesthesiologist explains why your muscles sometimes need to be reversibly paralyzed during anesthesia. Neuromuscular blocking agents are used to achieve this goal. Learn how these drugs work to keep muscles from moving.


What Is Propofol? The "Michael Jackson Drug" in Anesthesia

As an anesthesiologist, I sometimes hear patients ask me, "Are you going to use the 'Michael Jackson Drug' on me?" Propofol is is safe and effective when administered by qualified professionals.


How Does Anesthesia Gas Work?

Have you been under anesthesia gas? Would it scare you to know that no one really knows how anesthesia gases work? As amazing as it is, it's true, as explained here by a physician anesthesiologist.


Regional Anesthesia: Definition and Examples

Regional anesthesia refers to numbing a region of the body rather than the whole body. An anesthesiologist discusses different techniques to induce regional anesthesia.


Fentanyl for Pain Management: Use and Abuse

Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid pain medication, is a powerful drug. Its use in the operating room is routine and valuable, as explained in this article. Abuse and addiction to fentanyl are dangerous and often deadly, even with just one use.


Lidocaine Side Effects and Toxicity

Lidocaine is commonly used for local anesthesia. While its use is safe when dosing guidelines are followed, there are some risks, complications, and potential toxicity issues to understand.


Interscalene Block: Nerve Block for Shoulder Surgery

An interscalene block of the brachial plexus is used to provide pain relief during and after shoulder surgery. Find out from an anesthesiologist what you should know before having this type of block.


Femoral Nerve Block: Pain Control for Knee Surgery

Femoral nerve blocks are useful for knee and thigh surgery. An anesthesiologist explains the technique, uses, and risks of the commonly used femoral nerve block.


What's the Difference Between Epidural and Spinal Anesthesia?

Ever wonder "What is the difference between a spinal and an epidural?" Read an anesthesiologist's response to this question.


The Endotracheal Tube (ETT) and the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) for General Anesthesia

One of the most important—and dangerous—tasks assigned to an anesthesiologist is securing the airway of the unconscious patient. Find out how and why this is done from a certified anesthesiologist.


What Are Conscious Sedation, MAC Sedation, and Twilight Sleep?

Are you familiar with the terms used to describe sedation, anesthesia, and analgesia? An anesthesiologist explains conscious sedation, MAC sedation, and twilight sleep.


Local Anesthesia: Types, Uses, and Risks

What is local anesthesia? How do local anesthetics work? And, most importantly, what do you need to know about their use and risks as a health consumer or patient?


Anesthesia and Asthma

Asthma and general anesthesia both affect the airways, lungs, and breathing. A certified anesthesiologist explains what asthmatics need to know in order to safely proceed with surgery.


Gas Pain After Surgery: Why It Happens and How to Relieve It

Gas pain after surgery is a common complaint. This article offers tips and advice from a board-certified anesthesiologist on how to prevent and treat post-operative gas pain.


Is General Anesthesia Safe for People With High Blood Pressure?

Need surgery? Wondering if anesthesia is safe for you? High blood pressure can be a problem during general anesthesia and surgery. If you are facing surgery, controlling your hypertension will make your anesthetic as safe as possible.


Treatments for Acid Reflux During Anesthesia: Preventing Aspiration Pneumonia

Acid reflux under anesthesia can lead to aspiration pneumonia and lung damage. Learn from an anesthesiologist how to protect yourself from these complications.


How Does Anesthesia Affect the Body?

The entire body is affected by an anesthetic. Here, a board-certified anesthesiologist gives an overview of the effects of anesthesia from head to toe.


Effects of Anesthesia on the Heart

A board-certified anesthesiologist discusses the common cardiac effects of general anesthesia and also explains why there is some variability.


Why Do I Have Urinary Bladder Retention After General Anesthesia?

Bladder retention after general anesthesia is fairly common. Find out why this happens. Understand your own risk factors and related complications from a board-certified anesthesiologist.


Post-Spinal Anesthesia Side Effects

Post-spinal anesthesia side effects can result from the needles, the technique or the medications used. Most side effects are minor and short-lived.


Seizures After Anesthesia

Anesthesia has risks. Seizures after anesthesia are a rare, but they are a recognized complication in the post-operative period. Learn about the risk factors for this complication.

Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD): Confusion After Surgery

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a state in which a decline in learning, memory, and/or personality changes persist long after the surgery. Here's what you need to know.


What Goes on in a Histology Lab and What It Means for Patients

A description of the process of Histology through the story of a patient, from the collection of a biopsy to a diagnosis.


Cataract Eye Surgery With Intraocular Lens Implants

Cataracts will affect many of us at one point in our lives. This article has all the information you need to make an informed decision when it's time for surgery.


PONV: Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting, a Common Side Effect of Anesthesia

Postoperative nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects after anesthesia and surgery. Find out from a board-certified anesthesiologist how to prevent and treat this unpleasant side effect.


6 Common Anesthesia Side Effects: What to Expect

Know what to expect and how to prevent and/or treat the most common after-effects of anesthesia, including nausea, sore throat, confusion, muscle aches, itching, and emotional outbursts.


Guide to Epidural Anesthesia for Labor and in Surgery

What is an epidural? Learn about the risks, benefits, and potential complications from a board-certified anesthesiologist.


Anesthesia Awareness: What If I Am Awake During Surgery?

Being awake under anesthesia is a serious and traumatic event. A board-certified anesthesiologist discusses this frightening complication, risk factors, and why it most likely won't happen to you.


What You Should Know About a Spinal Anesthesia Block

Learn the most important facts about spinal anesthesia, what to expect, side effects, and potential complications to prepare for your surgery.


Guide to General Anesthesia: What You Need to Know Before Going Under

A board-certified anesthesiologist explains what to expect when you have general anesthesia, possible side effects, and potential complications. Frequently asked questions are answered, as well.


Range-of-Motion Exercises After Mastectomy or Lumpectomy

Many women require therapy for range-of-motion shoulder exercises after mastectomy or lumpectomy. Exercises help stretch the soft tissues to regain shoulder movement without stressing incision scars.

How Effective Is the Lapex 2000 BCS at Reducing Fat?

With so many cosmetic lasers for fat reduction, how do you know which to choose? As a professional who has performed numerous treatments for guests, here is my personal opinion review on the Lipo Laser by Meridian Medical.


Three Different Types of Knee X-Rays (With Photos)

Struggling to make sense of a knee X-ray? Understanding the features of a normal knee X-ray can help you identify any problems you are having. Includes multiple knee X-ray views.

Diagram showing how to locate the Ventrogluteal injection site

The Ventrogluteal Injection Site

The ventrogluteal injection site is the preferred injection site for adults and children over seven months.