High Demand for Nurses and 12-Hour Shifts Are Causing Burnout
TED Talks: Nurse Burnout
While nurses are being asked to work longer shifts in the United States, a recent study confirmed that the same is also true for nurses in 12 different European countries. This demonstrates that the situation seems to be at least partially global and spreading.
What is the reason behind these extended hours? The researchers in this study note that some hospital managers believe the longer shifts reduce the number of patient handovers, thus increasing efficiency. Although this may seem logical, over time, these long hours actually start to decrease efficiency.
12-hour shifts are becoming increasingly common for hospital nurses but there is concern that long shifts adversely affect nurses’ well-being, job satisfaction and intention to leave their job.— BMJ Open, 8/23/2015
The High Demand for Nurses Creates Burnout
Working in preventive medicine and health research, I have found that our local state university medical center employs hundreds of nurses at varying levels of certification, from LPN and VPN to RN and NP—even including some PhD-holding nursing professors.
Medical centers around the state are looking for additional nurses to fill in the hours. Some of the job ads even want nurse practitioners to work as physician assistants. However, with limited success in hiring new nurses, the current staff are being asked to fill in those hours with overtime. Private university hospitals and privately owned hospitals are experiencing similar nursing shortages.
Time-Saving Changes Can Become Stressors
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, we first heard about a time-saving schedule change that would provide nurses with four days off every week. This was wonderful for the first several years it was used.
In Cincinnati, a nurse I knew jumped at the change to work three 12-hour shifts weekly on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday so that she could care for her three children the rest of the week. In addition, she was paid for 40 hours of work, an entire week.
Soon, this scheduling option was also available to nurses in Central Ohio in both state-funded and private hospitals. Many people took advantage of that three-day schedule to attend classes at the Ohio State University during the week, especially since many classes did not meet on Fridays and increasing numbers of four-day classes began to replace five-day classes.
By the 1990s, nurses were working four 12-hour shifts throughout the week instead of just three shifts, with requests for them to accept additional hours of two or four more hours after a shift. By the late 2000s, we saw nurses working five 12-hour shifts a week and their four days off simply vanished.
Signs of a Burnout
The symptoms of burnout most reported by European nurses working 12-hour shifts were the same as those reported by American nurses:
- Emotional and mental exhaustion
- A sense of low personal accomplishment
- Feelings of depersonalization
Symptoms of Shift Work Disorder Mirror Nurse Burnout
Symptoms associated with working consistently long and/or changing shifts include:
- Excessive sleepiness on the job. For nurses, this can lead to life threatening mistakes in patient medication treatment as well as physical accidents like falls and dropping pediatric patients.
- Insomnia, as in failing to fall asleep at night and wanting to sleep during a daytime work shift or early awakening.
- One's sleep is not refreshing. Improper sleep may even lead to weight gain.
- Difficulty concentrating and ease in making mistakes, some of which go unremembered.
- Fatigue and lack of energy.
- Irritability, agitation, and even depression. In my experience, hallucinations even result.
- Problems in work and personal relationships.
Long Hours Can Create Health Problems
The latest in nursing news I have heard around Ohio is that some university medical center floor nurses often work 60 hours per week and are asked to work an extra of two, four, or more hours after some of their regular shifts. They receive overtime pay after 40 hours and a higher wage rate on second and third shifts, but the higher pay is not relieving their work fatigue and exhaustion.
Some of these nurses are suffering the same types of health problems as workers who work variable shifts or hold more than one job (shift work disorder). Many nurses are retiring, and the remaining nurses are tempted to quit and find other occupations or to accept nursing positions in less demanding circumstances. In fact, up to 40% of RN nurses active in 2011 and 2012 will be retired in 2020.
The study mentioned in the beginning showed that Poland was the country where the most nurses (99%) reported working 12-hour shifts. In Ireland, the percentage was 79%. England came in third, with a much lower 36%.
This is one reason why some nurses will quit a hospital and work with a travel nursing agency that offers variety, perks, and attractive incentives. Travel nurses receive higher hourly rates of pay, bonuses, reimbursement of travel expenses, and even payment of their rent or mortgage when they travel. These nurses spend anywhere from three to twelve months in one place and avoid feeling trapped in long-term situations.
What Do You Think?
What is the biggest cause of nurse shortage and burnout that you see?
The metropolitan areas at highest risk for job burnout are:
- For registered nurses (RNs) with 1 to 5 years of experience:
- Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, and Austin, TX
- Los Angeles, CA
- Baltimore, MD
- New York City, NY
- Seattle, WA
- Washington, DC
- Atlanta, GA
- For nurse practitioners (NPs) with 0 to 6 years of experience:
- New York City, NY
- Houston and Dallas, TX
- Seattle, WA
- Chicago, IL
- Los Angeles, CA
- Tampa, FL
- For licensed practical nurses (LPNs) with 1 to 3 years of experience:
- San Antonio, TX
- Puyallup, WA
- Columbus, OH
- Louisville, KY
- Phoenix, AZ
- Durham, NC
Summary of Things to Consider
- Effective, experienced nurses are in high demand and are often required to work 12-hour work shifts. This can lead to a job burnout if the number of these shifts per week increases.
- Burnout may be lessened if nurses—particularly the floor nurses who are also RNs—are shown appreciation, consideration, and trust by doctors and administrators.
- Experienced RNs seem to avoid burnout more often when they feel that they have some authority at work. Nurses like to feel that they are an important part of their patiens' treatment teams.
- Nurses should remember to take care of themselves. Eat healthy foods and regular meals, get enough rest and exercise, and find ways to de-stress between work shifts.
- Nurses working 12-hour shifts more than three times per week may need to learn how to say no to additional work hours. Some hospitals require mandatory overtime a few times per year, but beyond that requirement, frequent extended shifts can become unhealthy for the nurse and unsafe for the patient.
- Nurses in collective bargaining units may be able to bargain together with their employers for shorter work hours in their nursing contracts and may want to speak with their union representatives about this.
- Dall'Ora C, Griffiths P, Ball J, et al. (2015). Association of 12 h shifts and nurses’ job satisfaction, burnout and intention to leave: findings from a cross-sectional study of 12 European countries. BMJ Open, 5(9):e008331. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008331
- National Sleep Foundation. Symptoms of Shift Work Disorder. https://sleepfoundation.org/shift-work/content/shift-work-disorder-%E2%80%93-symptoms Retrieved March 5, 2018.
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© 2015 Patty Inglish MS